On Tuesday June 27, 2023, 17-year-old Nahel was killed by a police officer during a traffic check in Nanterre, in the Hauts-de-Seine. The officer fired a fatal bullet that hit his heart. The latter was taken into custody. Two investigations were opened, one of which aimed at the official for intentional homicide by a person holding public authority and was entrusted to the IGPN. The second concerns the charges against the dead teenager, that is to say the refusal to comply and an attempted murder of a person holding public authority.

Nevertheless, a video of the drama circulated on social networks questioning the self-defense claimed by the police officer. As of Tuesday evening, tensions erupted in many departments of French territory. Thus, since the event, revolts have occurred every evening. According to the Ministry of the Interior, 875 people were arrested. In view of the fires and other violence, some elected officials are calling for the triggering of a state of emergency.

On June 29, 2023, during a press conference, Eric Ciotti, president of the Les Républicains group, asked for a state of emergency to be declared. In the press release published on the Les Républicains group website, the latter affirmed the need for the implementation of this exceptional regime. “Town halls and police stations attacked, destruction of street furniture, theft of equipment from the police, burnt tram… This is the result of a night of riots and looting which will cost millions of euros”, a- he shouted.

Without mentioning the death of the young Nahel, the latter showed his support for the forces of order. incidents broke out,” he continued. But this is not the only politician to have asked for a state of emergency. Indeed, Eric Zemmour, president of the Reconquête! group, shared his opinion on the measures to be put in place on Twitter.

Already in 2005, the state of emergency was launched after riots that took place following the death of Zyed Benna and Bouna Traoré who were fleeing a police check. But what is this special diet? In what context had it been triggered before?

Since 1955, a state of emergency has been declared six times. At the time of its promulgation, it was applied for the first time in the departments of French Algeria. For good reason, a wave of attacks had taken place at the initiative of the National Liberation Front (FLN). Then in 1958, the latter was launched again following the coup d’etat in Algiers. Then, it was established again in 1961.

In 1984, a new state of emergency was put in place in New Caledonia at the time of the clashes on the territory. In 2005, it was declared again. Finally, in 2015, François Hollande put it back in place following the attacks of November 13 in Paris. It was not until 2017 that it was lifted. But what does this exceptional regime allow? What does it actually change? Finally, is the government really thinking about it?

In April 1955, the state of emergency therefore appeared for the first time in the emergency law. Article 1 then stipulated that the latter “may be declared on all or part of the metropolitan territory, overseas departments sea, overseas communities governed by Article 74 of the Constitution and in New Caledonia, either in the event of imminent danger resulting from serious breaches of public order, or in the event of events presenting, for their nature and gravity, the character of a public calamity”. To set it up, it is necessary to decide it by decree in the Council of Ministers. It only lasts twelve days. To extend it, it must be approved by Parliament.

The exceptional regime then makes it possible to strengthen the powers of the civil authorities. It may also limit public or individual freedoms. The Ministry of the Interior can then ban demonstrations, but also prevent the movement of people. The closure of public places, as well as the establishment of a curfew are also made possible.

But the government does not seem to consider this possibility. Indeed, on June 30, 2023, while traveling to Brussels, Emmanuel Macron returned to French territory to chair a crisis unit. He then announced “additional resources” which would be deployed by Gérald Darmanin, the Minister of the Interior, according to BFMTV.

“We release in this regard by a series of provisions the forces and the Keeper of the Seals will ensure follow-up by a series of circulars targeting both adults and minors who have been arrested and will be brought before the courts in the next few hours,” he said. But no state of emergency has been declared.

Gérald Darmanin then announced the cessation of bus traffic after 9 p.m. throughout France. Some festive events have also been canceled, and the Prime Minister, Elisabeth Borne, has decided to launch the deployment of gendarmerie armored vehicles.