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holography is an optical technique that allows you to create a three-dimensional image on a two dimensional surface, generating an impression of depth. In addition to that, the holography gives the name to a few assumptions mathematics with which it is intended to explain what is happening in three dimensions from two. To understand what this means, is like trying to explain what goes on inside of a room by projecting the events on the walls, and creating a mathematical model to describe what happens on these surfaces.

The volume of the room has three dimensions, but can be explained from the walls , which have only two dimensions.

Some physicists use the assumptions of this holographic principle for try to explain gravity at the small scale (below the Planck distance) , entering a domain for which today there is no explanation in the standard model, the theoretical framework explains the world of particles from four physical interactions fundamental.

In a very simple way, this holographic principle implies that we can explain the physics that happens inside a black hole, in three dimensions, from the physical is seen in its border, in two dimensions. Therefore, it would appear that the interior of the hole is like a projection, a hologram, of what is happening outside . In a black hole, “outside” is the event horizon, the boundary from which nothing escapes its gravity.

Einstein and Hawking

This week, a group of researchers of the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), in Trieste, Italy, presented a study in which they have worked on to reconcile the General Relativity of Albert Einstein, with the holographic principle, that some ideas proposed in the seventies by Stephen Hawking and Jacob Bekenstein. Their conclusions, supporting that idea that black holes could be as a hologram , with all its information is retained in a two-dimensional surface, and have been recently published in the journal “Physical Review X”.

black holes are one of those strange phenomena and difficult to explain, as the mystery of dark matter, which are seen as an opportunity for science to go beyond that and moves into the unknown. Why? is Kostas Skenderis already explained, in an article that we wrote about a holographic universe: “The General Theory of Relativity describes the Universe very well at large scales, but fails on a very small scale. Therefore, it is necessary to combine this theory with Quantum Mechanics”. Precisely the black holes are one of the best opportunities to try to combine the two.

Smooth and simple, or extremely complex

a black hole is A phenomenon predicted by General Relativity, which conceives it as an object smooth, spherical, simple, and devoid of information . But in Quantum Mechanics, however, as suggested by Hawking and Bekenstein, among others, could be the opposite.

Hawking and Bekenstein proposed that the surface of the event horizon is full of information and that these objects would be as a hologram, projected from the “mold” in two dimensions. Therefore, the understanding of gravity as a quantum phenomenon would be in that area.

“This revolutionary and in some ways counterintuitive principle proposes that the behavior of the gravity in a certain region of space can be described alternatively in terms of a different system, that exists only on the edge of this region and, therefore, in one dimension less”, have been written on the work of Francesco Benini and Paolo Milan, co-authors of the study.

“And, what is more important, in this alternative description (called holographic) gravity does not appear explicitly . In other words, the holographic principle allows us to use the gravity using a language that does not contain the gravity, thus avoiding the friction with Quantum Mechanics”.

why make these calculations and assumptions? “This way, the mysterious thermodynamic properties of black holes have been made more understandable”. One of them is that according to the principles of Hawking and Bekenstein are objects with a very large entropy and a high degree of complexity.

do We understand gravity?

The authors have said that your work is only a first step to “understand with more depth these cosmic bodies and the properties that characterize them when Quantum Mechanics intersects with General Relativity “.

In his opinion, the most interesting of these theories is the time at which the observations astrófísicas. Put as an example the observations of the merger of black holes, made from 2015 by the observatories LIGO and Virgo, or the recent first picture of the history of the event horizon of a black hole.

In the near future, we could to test our predictions theory in relation to quantum gravity, such as those made in this study, with observations”, have ventured Francesco Benini and Paolo Milan. “And this, from a scientific point of view, it would be something absolutely exceptional.”