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Diogenes the cynic was the first to speak of the Kosmopolites, the citizens of the world. And so began the political thought cosmopolitan west. This idea, Diogenes Laertius the prefaces to the race, the city, the social class, the free man or the genre. The cosmopolitanism joined, while the other characteristics listed serve to separate communities. The Greek philosopher, spoke of an approach to moral policy focused on the Humanity. is The nobility, fame or heroism were external ornaments of vice . Just had a just government that was the universe, the cosmos. Martha C. Nussbaum explores this matter through the works of the stoics, Cicero, Seneca, marcus Aurelius, Grotius, and Adam Smith . She refers to the cosmopolitan tradition protestant separated from the catholic from Aristotle. Very few references there are to this last, and that there are -as we shall see – are not to your liking. Kant reintroduced all this thought in the contemporary world is through the ideology of the Kingdom of ends, that is to say, the unity of all rational beings.

administration of justice

The cosmopolitan cynic-stoic manifested by the equality and worth of all human beings: equal and of inestimable value. For Cicero and Seneca, slavery was an offense to Humanity; and torture, cruelty or rape. In Conversations with myself, Mandela took as teacher to marcus Aurelius and his Meditations. In oficiis, Cicero was establishing the moral foundations of international relations. Justice should rule. Even the war had to be regulated. is The Liability negative condemning not only those who performed bad deeds , but also to those who do not prevented. Marcus Aurelius, as a good stoic, he spoke of the inalienability of human dignity.

The dutchman, Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) on the law of war and peace (1625) showed his debt to Cicero and the stoics. Grotius, a devout christian, however he stated that the policy is not required of a christian based theistic. International relations should be governed by moral norms of respect for Humanity, such as Cicero. is citizens and their nations had to be taken respect to each other.


Grotius attacked the nationalism, demagogic of us first. Grotius defended the humanitarian interventions, compatible with the national sovereignty; the transnational obligations of material aid; the duties to migrants in need; conservation of nature; and the establishment of a global community where no one had to renounce to the own. The moral truths and policies were independent of the true religion, both in the logical as epistemological.

Adam Smith (1723-1790) is claimed by Nussbaum. It considers its liberalism as something extreme. Highlights of the author of The wealth of nations (1776), the importance he gave to the national commitment to the redistribution material. Smith was a great connoisseur of stoicism and the work of Cicero, to which numerous times to quote whole passages without announcing the author. Smith criticizes the colonial domination by the economic damage to the nations colonized . And in rebuttal to Cicero and beyond Grotius, says that the concept of humanity break off a few duties to strict material aid: health and education; – first national and then international. Grotius and Smith defended the religious freedom and the separation of Church and State. The nation, for Grotius, it has a practical importance and policy; and it must defend human rights and fight poverty. Some of the ideas of Thomas Aquinas, Suárez or Gentile, will serve to Grotius to theorize about the war, just or unjust.

Adam Smith is claimed by Nussbaum. Stresses the importance that we gave the commitment to the redistribution of material

What is global citizenship? That equals to all human beings . Grotius belonged to the current arminiana that cost him the exile. Argued that we can decide our salvation in virtue of our own acts, against the doctrine of predestination. This implied the freedom of expression and conscience. Grotius argued that human rights were prepolíticos, prior to the state. Nussbaum is positioned on this side to criticize Victoria, Vázquez, Azor, and Molina arguing that the power to punish is derived from the civil jurisdiction. Grotius does not refer to women in the representation of the State. Also refers to slavery. Believe that does not violate the natural law.

For Nussbaum it is a mistake to read Smith as the apostle of the mere self-interest. The society to which it aspires, the thinker must respect human dignity, freedom, natural, ability of decision and choice. And the institutions must be the guardians . The differences between people were only due to differences of education and habits. Smith denounced the abuses of power of the employers against the workers; as well as to the governments are hostages of the classes potentadas. What state is not interventionist? Smith, for the author, is not a simple defender of the inaction of the state. Everything should be regulated, for example, wages are governed by the right to charge the minimum enough. is interesting Book, and at times controversial.