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If we have forgotten the paths that lead to the origin of the values that matter to us, as solidarity or freedom, we will not know how to defend them. To make memory, Santiago Muñoz Machado (Pozoblanco, 1949) has assembled eleven essays in a new book, “Vestiges” (ed.Critical). Since the political weight of relics and symbols of the origin of the laws to alleviate poverty, the capacity of the State to punish-and its limits – or the rights of animals, the academic keeps track of the traces where it all comes from.

-Talk about the importance of the vestiges and political symbols while the statues are torn down or vandalized demonstrates that the subject is topical, don’t you think?

-The book explores things that has worried me is always in the policy: the weight of institutions and symbols. We see that you despise institutions or categories that it has cost a lot to train throughout history, that are at the base of the society and we can break down in a given time without realizing what they have behind. I want these trials to give an explanation on the present. Why do we have those things, how much it has cost us to get them?

– how throughout the story the weight of the relics changes?

-The religious perspective was dominant for a long time. Now, after a process of de-christianization widespread are kept on the basis of the popular culture, with a lot of force, without much appeal to the religious, but embedded in the tradition, as the Way of st. James, leads to false-Sacromonte…

– what is cultural History?

-at The beginning many christian rites are overlapped to the pagans, and now these rituals are used as an essential support of the popular culture. Look at the Dew.

– what Philip II collected thousands of relics?

-the remnants of people of special significance or dignity since ancient times. Philip II collects thousands of relics, to establish the ideological foundations of the Spanish nation, through great men that have been born and done things in our country. There was involved the reformation protestant, believed that the opposition to that devotion for the relics was fundamental. Calvin made a treaty. to unmask the falsehoods.

-And then comes the French Revolution.

-And then come the anti-clericalism Spanish liberal of the NINETEENTH century. The French had relics of the Monaquía, the hearts of the kings at St Denis. At that time, were able to stash them in secret places, and returned to the altar after the desacralization of France.

“There is a political commitment in some cases in ignorance of these institutions, trivializarlas or give them any importance”

-we Live in a time of upheaval. What are at risk to these values, these institutions?

-There is a political commitment in some cases in ignorance of those things, trivializarlas or give them any importance. From the point of view of the beliefs themselves, but from the point of view of the culture is not understood. A topic such as this one is more than two thousand years of trolling, it is part of the cultural heritage and it is not possible to eradicate it by political commitment that you have.

-tear Down statues of slave owners the same that attacked the Colon. You defend the role of Spain in America. What reading of this review of the european culture?

-there is an ideology of replacement, anything that they want to put in place of what’s there. Are protest movements, sometimes justified as a response to events very unfair as has occurred with the death of Floyd.

-Comes from far away: deals with the origin of the right to pursue happiness, in the texts of Jefferson, who was pro-slavery.

-it Is nice that inquiry of how it appears the pursuit of happiness as a fundamental right. Is the pen of Jefferson, who had known this issue in Europe, where there are statements of many monarchs of the EIGHTEENTH century Spanish and the picture spoke of that goal. We will add to the Constitution from the principle of constitutionalism, from Cadiz.

-But Cadiz points out the difference of vision at both sides of the Atlantic.

-So, in America it separates the conception and the political and ideological relationship of the State with the right to happiness. Beyond concerns to the citizen, who must do everything possible to get it. In Europe, France and Spain above all, the State has to help the citizen in the pursuit of happiness. This is why we created public service delivery. This is the origin of the public services of education, health, or welfare that would lead to the creation of the welfare State. It’s nice to see where it comes from and how is born the pursuit of happiness, and remember that the first place in which it is declared is in America, as the right of the white, yes.

-Now, with the globalization all of that entrechoca, isn’t it?

-The social rights are resolved at a state level because they have remained outside the scope of the EU. But there is a certain confluence to the harmonisation of these benefits. In the US, the welfare is still something that depends on the citizen.

“today There are many criminal trials at the hands of trainers thugs who destroyed lives and estates, where the law fails.”

-Between the “traces” of the book, it hurts to see the torture… The death of arbitrary Floyd puts it today.

-The punitive power of the State is an issue that has me worried. It is the most terrible of the powers, and be continually vigilant about it. Study the origin of the brutality of medieval that was in full illustration. There is No physical torture or death penalty in our system, but there is still spiritual. Today there are many criminal trials at the hands of trainers thugs who destroyed lives and estates, where the law fails. It is good to remember how much it cost to convince the institutions that they stop causing physical harm to value what is important to the time to which we have come.

-Studying the policies against poverty. What lessons did you leave the past?

-we Continue with that problem. I boot of Luis Vives and his work, “Subventione Pauperum”. In the SIXTEENTH century was Europe filled with vagabonds, pilgrims, many times offenders. The difficulty was to differentiate between the poor who deserved help, and the simulators that they were deceiving the system. This need also is still alive, there is poverty to be simulated.

“in my view there is that apply the public resources that are necessary to combat poverty, and if they need a special tax, would be a supporter”

-Have past five centuries…

-And the problems are still there. It is regrettable that we have not been able to fix this issue and have not been policies to eradicate them. In my view there is that apply the public resources that are required, and if you need a special tax would be supporter, because the poverty of solemnity is a shame that is unbearable for a State opulent. But not only is a policy of the State. Today it is a global problem that needs global policies. Climate change accelerates the migration from Africa.

– is There an amendment today to our european values?

-on The contrary, the institutions are strong and should feel able to overcome or respond to these problems with policies. It is evident that in the global society we need a global government for some things.

-also Speaks of the rights of the animals…

-for centuries it was thought that all of nature is connected and we have to treat it with respect. It is another matter of great importance, because it shows the foundations from which arises the state of the art environmental policies that we have today.

– What we play if we forget all this?

-An attentive reader will find arguments to defend societies to which we have given, the political arguments of which we use and the culture of respect. There are institutions that dragged so long story…

– what The world is going by there?

-it’s Not going out there, unfortunately, but on the other we have to do something. Procure from the feathers and thought to be responsible people with the world, to be patriots. To see if any one that is not too thug he drops a book or you get an idea, even if it is with Twitter.

-Jovellanos, and other picture would be in that same spirit.

-Bridging all the distances and the category intellectual Actress that I find it unattainable, I think the people who has been busy all his life to study you have to put something in the contribution of your company to ensure that you do not make nonsense.

-we Cannot give up.

-No. We cannot give up.